Throwing fresh light on how India gradually drifted away from Africa and Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian plate, scientists now report India was by no means as isolated as we thought during its journey.
It was common belief among researchers that before it collided with the Eurasian plate, India was largely isolated for at least 30 million years during its migration.
The research was done by German, Polish and Indian scientists, with the Indian contribution coming from Hukam Singh, a scientists at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Paleosciences, Lucknow. The study is published in the peer reviewed journal PLOS ONE.
The insects, called ‘biting midges’ were less than a millimeter long and were fossilized in amber, a tree resin. They were discovered in the Cambay basin near Surat in Gujarat. Their age has been estimated at 54 million years ago, a time when the Indian plate should have been isolated and surrounded by oceans.
India harbours many unique species of flora and fauna that only occur in this form on the subcontinent. The prerequisite for such a unique development of species is that no exchange takes place with other regions. For a long time, scientists assumed that India was isolated in this way due to continental drift. The supercontinent Gondwana, which included South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia, Madagascar and India, broke up over the course of geological history. What is now India also began moving towards the north east around 130 million years ago. It was common belief among researchers that, before it collided with the Eurasian plate, India was largely isolated for at least 30 million years during its migration. “Certain midges that occurred in India at this time display great similarity to examples of a similar age from Europe and Asia,” says lead author Frauke Stebner from the working group of Prof. Jes Rust at the Steinmann Institute at the University of Bonn.