Category Archives: Real Estate

The Most Literate Village Of Asia Is From Uttar Pradesh

Dhorra Mafi village in Uttar Pradesh’s Aligarh district has the distinction of being the most literate village, not only in India, but the whole of Asia.

With a literacy rate of 75 percent, the place entered the ‘Limca Book of Records’ in 2002 and now it is going through the registration phase to enter the ‘Guinness World Records’. With a radius of approximately 3 kilometres, the village lie in close proximity to Aligarh Muslim University. The place has a population of 20,000 and in spite of being self-sufficient with all necessary amenities, the village has not yet been included as a part of Aligarh city. A proposal has, however, been forwarded for consideration.

Land acquisition in India

Land acquisition in India refers to the process by which the union or a state government in India acquires private land for the purpose of industrialisation, development of infrastructural facilities or urbanisation of the private land, and provides compensation to the affected land owners and their rehabilitation and resettlement.[1]

Land acquisition in India is governed by the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 and which came into force from 1 January 2014.[2] Till 2013, land acquisition in India was governed by Land Acquisition Act of 1894. On 31 December 2014, the President of India promulgated an ordinance with an official mandate to “meet the twin objectives of farmer welfare; along with expeditiously meeting the strategic and developmental needs of the country”. An amendment bill was then introduced in Parliament to endorse the Ordinance. Lok Sabha passed the bill but the same is still lying for passage by the Rajya Sabha. On 30 May 2015, President of India promulgated the amendment ordinance for third time.[3][4][5][6][7] Union Government of India has also made and notified the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement (Social Impact Assessment and Consent) Rules, 2014 under the Act to regulate the procedure.[8] The land acquisition in Jammu and Kashmir is governed by the Jammu and Kashmir Land Acquisition Act, 1934.[9]

Contents

Purpose

As per the Act, the union or state governments can acquire lands for its own use, hold and control, including for public sector undertakings and for “public purpose”, and shall include the following purposes:

  • for strategic purposes relating to naval, military, air force, and armed forces of the Union, including central paramilitary forces or any work vital to national security or defence of India or State police, safety of the people;
  • for infrastructure projects as defined under the Act;
  • project for project affected families;
  • project for housing for such income groups, as may be specified from time to time by the appropriate Government;
  • project for planned development or the improvement of village sites or any site in the urban areas or provision of land for residential purposes for the weaker sections in rural and urban areas;
  • project for residential purposes to the poor or landless or to persons residing in areas affected by natural calamities, or to persons displaced or affected by reason of the implementation of any scheme undertaken by the Government, any local authority or a corporation owned or controlled by the State.[1]

The land can be acquired for private bodies for certain purposes:

  • for public private partnership projects, where the ownership of the land continues to vest with the Government, for public purpose as defined in the Act;
  • for private companies for public purpose.[1]

Issues

Some of the important issues surrounding the Land Acquisition are discussed below.[10] The major land acquisition and conflicts happen in the densely populated areas of the countryside.

Eminent Domain

The power to take property from the individual is rooted in the idea of eminent domain. The doctrine of eminent domain states, the sovereign can do anything, if the act of sovereign involves public interest. The doctrine empowers the sovereign to acquire private land for a public use, provided the public nature of the usage can be demonstrated beyond doubt. The doctrine is based on the following two Latin maxims, (1) Salus populi suprema lex (Welfare of the People Is the Paramount Law) and (2) Necessitas publica major est quam (Public Necessity Is Greater Than Private Necessity).[11] In the history of modern India, this doctrine was challenged twice (broadly speaking) once when land reform was initiated and another time when Banks were nationalized.[12]

The Constitution of India originally provided the right to property (which includes land) under Articles 19 and 31. Article 19 guaranteed that all citizens have the right to acquire, hold and dispose of property. Article 31 stated that “no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.” It also indicated that compensation would be paid to a person whose property has been taken for public purposes (often subject to wide range of meaning). The Forty-Fourth Amendment of 1978 deleted the right to property from the list of fundamental rights with an introduction of a new provision, Article 300-A, which provided that “no person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law” (Constitution 44th Amendment, w.e.f. 10.6.1979). The amendment ensured that the right to property‟ is no more a fundamental right but rather a constitutional/legal right/as a statutory right and in the event of breach, the remedy available to an aggrieved person is through the High Court under Article 226 of the Indian Constitution and not the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution.

State must pay compensation at the market value for such land, building or structure acquired (Inserted by Constitution, Seventeenth Amendment) Act, 1964, the same can be found in the earlier rulings when property right was a fundamental right (such as 1954 AIR 170, 1954 SCR 558, which propounded that the word “Compensation” deployed in Article 31(2) implied full compensation, that is the market value of the property at the time of the acquisition. The Legislature must “ensure that what is determined as payable must be compensation, that is, a just equivalent of what the owner has been deprived of”). Elsewhere, Justice, Reddy, O Chinnappa ruled (State Of Maharashtra v. Chandrabhan Tale on 7 July 1983) that the fundamental right to property has been abolished because of its incompatibility with the goals of “justice” social, economic and political and “equality of status and of opportunity” and with the establishment of “a socialist democratic republic, as contemplated by the Constitution. There is no reason why a new concept of property should be introduced in the place of the old so as to bring in its wake the vestiges of the doctrine of Laissez Faire and create, in the name of efficiency, a new oligarchy. Efficiency has many facets and one is yet to discover an infallible test of efficiency to suit the widely differing needs of a developing society such as ours” (1983 AIR 803, 1983 SCR (3) 327). The concept of efficiency has been introduced by Justice Reddy, O Chinnappa, very interestingly coupled with the condition of infallibility (Dey Biswas 2014, 14-15 footnote).

In India, with this introduction of ‘social’ elements to the property rights, a new phase had begun. K. K. Mathew, justice of KesavanandaBharati vs State of Kerala (cited in [13]) stated this precisely: “Property in consumable goods or means of production worked by their owners (use aspects of property) were justified as necessary condition of a free and purposeful life; but when property gave power not only over things but through things over persons (power aspect of property) also, it was not justified as it was an instrument of servitude rather than freedom” (See [14] for more on ‘Social’ Element of Property Rights as a Guiding Problem).

Legislative changes

The 2013 Act focuses on providing not only compensation to the land owners, but also extend rehabilitation and resettlement benefits to livelihood looser from the land, which shall be in addition to the minimum compensation. The minimum compensation to be paid to the land owners is based on a multiple of market value and other factors laid down in the Act. The Act forbids or regulates land acquisition when such acquisition would include multi-crop irrigated area. The Act changed the norms for acquisition of land for use by private companies or in case of public-private partnerships, including compulsory approval of 80% of the landowners. The Act also introduced changes in the land acquisition process, including a compulsory social-impact study, which need to be conducted before an acquisition is made.[15]

The new law, also has some serious shortcomings as regards its provisions for socioeconomic impact assessment and it has also bypassed the constitutional local self governments by not recognizing them as “appropriate governments” in matters of land acquisition.[16]

Monetary compensation

Major Indian infrastructure projects such as the Yamuna Expressway have paid about INR 2800 crores (US$500 million) for land,[17] or over US$25,000 per acre between 2007 and 2009. For context purposes, this may be compared with land prices elsewhere in the world:

  • According to The Financial Times, in 2008, the farmland prices in France were Euro 6,000 per hectare ($2,430 per acre; IN Rs. 1,09,350 per acre).[18]
  • According to the United States Department of Agriculture, as of January 2010, the average farmland value in the United States was $2,140 per acre (IN Rs. 96,300 per acre). The farmland prices in the United States varied between different parts of the country, ranging between $480 per acre to $4,690 per acre.[19]

A 2010 report by the Government of India, on labor whose livelihood depends on agricultural land, claims that, per 2009 data collected across all states in India, the all-India annual average daily wage rates in agricultural occupations ranged between IN Rs.[20] 53 to 117 per day for men working in farms (US$354 to 780 per year), and between IN Rs. 41 to 72 per day for women working in farms (US$274 to 480 per year). This wage rate in rural India study included the following agricultural operations common in India: ploughing, sowing, weeding, transplanting, harvesting, winnowing, threshing, picking, herdsmen, tractor driver, unskilled help, masonry, etc.

The compensation for the acquired land is based on the value of the agricultural land, however price increases have been ignored. The land value would increase many times, which the current buyer would not benefit from.[21] Secondly, if the prices are left for the market to determine, the small peasants could never influence the big corporate tycoons. Also it is mostly judiciary who has awarded higher compensation then bureaucracy (Singh 2007).

Delayed projects

Delayed projects due to mass unrest have caused a damaging effect to the growth and development of companies and the economy as a whole. Earlier states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh had been an attractive place for investors, but the present day revolts have shown that land acquisition in some states pose problems.[22]

Consequences

The consequences of land acquisition in India are manifold.The empirical and theoretical studies on displacement through the acquisition of land by the government for development projects have so far focussed on the direct and immediate adverse consequences of land acquisition.[23] Most of the analytical as well as the descriptive accounts of the immediate consequences of land acquisition for development projects draws heavily from Michael Cernea’s ‘impoverishment risk model’, which broadly enumerated eight ‘risks’ or ‘dimensions’ of development-induced displacement. These eight risks are very much direct and basic in nature which are (i) landlessness, (ii) joblessness, (iii) marginalization, (iv) loss of access to common property resources, (v) increased morbidity and mortality, (vi) food insecurity, (vii) homelessness and (viii) social disarticulation ([24]). Recently L.K. Mahapatra has added ‘loss of education’ as another impoverishment risk in situations of displacement (Mahapatra 1999).

But apart from these direct and immediate effects of land acquisition there are more subtle and indirect effects of this coercive and centralized legal procedure, which have a bearing on various decentralised and participatory democratic processes, and institutions of the state power. Land reforms and the Panchayati raj institutions are the two most important areas, which are being vitiated by land acquisition.[25] Of all the states of India, the consequences and controversies around land acquisition in West Bengal has recently gained a lot of national and international attention. The peasant resistances against governmental land expropriation in Singur(a place in the Hoogly district) and Nandigram(a place in the East Medinipur district) has finally led to the fall of the communist party(Marxist) led government in West Bengal, which ruled the state through democratic election for 34 years.The communist led left front government of West Bengal under the economic liberalisation policy adopted by the Central/Union government of the country shifted from its pro-farmer policy and took to the capitalist path of industrial development, which at the micro-levels endangered the food security of the small and marginal farmers as well as sharecroppers who formed the vote bank of the left front government of West Bengal[26] The new anti-communist Trinamul Congress led government of West Bengal which came to power in the state in 2011 through a massive electoral victory is yet to develop any comprehensive resettlement and rehabilitation policy for the thousands of families affected by various development projects. The new government has enacted a law on 14 June 2011, in the West Bengal Assembly named ‘Singur Land Rehabilitation and Development Act, 2011’. With this law, the West Bengal government has reacquired about 1000 acres of farmland from the Tatas which wasgiven to the company for building a small-car manufacturing factory in 2006 by the then Left Front government. The Trinamul government’s intention was to return 400 acres of farmland to the ‘unwilling’ farmers around whom the agitation against the Left Front government was organised by the Trinamul Congress party. However, now the whole issue seems to have fallen into a long legal battle between the present state government and the Tatas, as the latter has challenged the ‘Singur Land Rehabilitation and Development Act’ in the court. As a result, the Trinamul government has not yet been able to return the land to those ‘unwilling farmers’ nor have they received any compensation (The Statesman, 12 January, 2012).In another case of governmental land acquisition for housing at North 24 Parganas district of West Bengal, the farmers began to cultivate their farmland which were acquired but remained unutilised. According to media report these farmers were assured by the Trinamul Congress party leaders before the election that their land, which is about 1687 acres would be returned to them if the party could come to power. However, now these farmers are turning their backs to the Trinamul Congress, since the party has not kept its pre-election promise (The Statesman, 11 February, 2012). Under the above disturbing episodes, it may be worthwhile to narrate the glaring incident of the opposition levelled by Mamata Banerjee, the present chief minister of West Bengal to the draft Land Acquisition (Amendment) Bill 2007 in the Lok Sabha. At that time Miss Mamata Banerjee was the Railway Minister of the Central Government. She opposed to a clause of the bill which empowered private companies to acquire up to 70 per cent land directly from farmers and landowners. The remaining 30 per cent could be acquired by the state government. Miss Banerjee wanted private companies to buy 100 per cent of the land, according to a report (The Statesman, 26 July 2009). It seemed that Miss Banerjee would have allowed the amended Bill to be passed if the Lok Sabha agreed to modify the 70/30 proportion to 100 per cent purchase by the companies under the principleof willing-buyer-willing-seller.[27]

Eminent domain doctrine has been widely used in India since the era of Independence, with over 21.6 million people in the period of 1951-90.[28] They have been displaced with large-scale projects like dams, canals, thermal plants, sanctuaries, industrial facilities, and mining (Pellissery and Dey Biswas 2012, pp 32–54). These occurrences are generally categorized as “development-induced displacement“.

The process of land acquisition in India has proven unpopular with the citizenry. The amount reimbursed is fairly low with regard to the current index of prices prevailing in the economy. Furthermore, due to the low level of human capital of the displaced people, they often fail to find adequate employment ([29]).

The draft of the government’s National Policy for Rehabilitation states that a figure around 75% of the displaced people since 1951 are still awaiting rehabilitation.[30] However, it should be noted that displacement is only being considered with regard to “Direct Displacement”. These rehabilitation policies do not cover fishermen, landless laborers, and artisans. Roughly one in ten Indian tribals is a displaced person. Dam projects have displaced close to a million Adivasis, with similar woe for displaced Dalits. Some estimate suggests 40 percent of displaced people are of tribal origins (Fernandes, 2008).

There have been a rising number of political and social protests against the acquisition of land by various industrialists. They have ranged from Bengal, Karnataka, and Uttar Pradesh in the recent past.[31] The acquisition of 997 acres of land by Tata motors in Bengal in order to set up a factory for the cheapest car in India was protested (Singur Tata Nano controversy).At least a decade before the Singur episode similar events occurred in West Bengal, although the opposition parties and other civil society organisations remained silent at that time.[32] Similarly, the Sardar Sarovar Dam project on the river Narmada was planned on acquired land, though the project was later canceled by the World Bank (Bøås and McNeill 2003, pp 121-122, 125, 142-43 and more).

The Land Acquisition Act of 1894 allowed the government to acquire private lands. It is the only legislation pertaining to land acquisition which, though amended several times, has failed to serve its purpose. Under the 1894 Act, displaced people were only liable for monetary compensation linked with market value of the land in question, which was still quite minimal considering circle rates are often misleading (Singh 2007). Land acquisition related conflicts during the post-reform period in India has shown three distinctive tendencies; (1) Technocracy and Bundle of Rights, (2) Power-land Regulation Nexus, and (3) Disappearing Commons.[33]

Controversy Over Proposed Amendments by Narendra Modi Government

The current Narendra Modi lead National Democratic Alliance (India) government driven Land Acquisition Amendment Bill[34] in the Lok Sabha on 10 March 2015 has seen a tough resistance from key position parties in India who have called the proposed amendments “anti farmer” and “anti poor”. The proposed amendments remove requirements for approval from farmers to proceed with land acquisition under five broad categories of projects.[35] While the bill was passed in Lok Sabha, it still needs approval from the Rajya Sabha, where the current government does not have a majority, for the proposed amendments to become effective.

The following are the main “disputation points”:[36]

The National Democratic Alliance (India) government came under heavy attacks from opposition parties and farmer organization for the proposed Land Acquisition bill amendments. The opponents of the Land acquisition bill claim the bill to be “anti-farmer” and “pro corporate”. They claim that the amendments are aimed at “benefiting the large corporate houses”.

The opposition Indian National Congress has opposed the bill in and out of Parliament. Sonia Gandhi, the chairperson of UPA and Indian National Congress, called the bill “anti-poor” and “anti-farmer”. She alleged that the bill will “break the backbone of India”.[37]

Samajwadi party leader Mulayam Singh Yadav said the Modi government is “taking anti-farmer stand” and is “favoring industrialists”. [38]

Not only the opposition parties but also other organization that traditionally supported Bharatiya Janta Party such as Mazdoor Sangh, Bhartiya Kisan Sangh and Akhil Bhartiya Vanvasi Kalyan Ashram have come heavily against the amendments proposed by the Narendra Modi lead NDA government. As per the Bharatiya Kisan Sangh, the Modi government’s land ordinance tweaks the fundamentals of the The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 passed by the UPA government and supported by the BJP two years ago. [39] [40] [41]

Displaced Tribals [42]
Project State Displaced Population Tribal Percentage
Karjan Gujarat 11,600 100
Sardar Sarovar Gujarat 2,00,000 57.6
Maheshwar Madhya Pradesh 20,000 60
Bodhghat Madhya Pradesh 12,700 73.91
Icha Bihar 30,800 80
Chandil Bihar 37,600 87.92
Koel Karo Bihar 66,000 88
Mahi Bajaj Sajar Rajasthan 38,400 76.28
Polavaram Andhra Pradesh 1,50,000 52.90
Maithon & Panchet Bihar 93,874 56.46
Upper Indravati Odisha 18,500 89.20
Pong Himachal Pradesh 80,000 56.25
Ichampalli Andhra Pradesh 38,100 76.28
Tultuti Maharashtra 13,600 51.61
Daman Ganga Gujarat 8,700 48.70
Bhakra Himachal Pradesh 36,000 34.76
Masan Reservoir Bihar 3,700 31
Ukai Reservoir Gujarat 52,000 18.92
Tamnar chhattisgarh 59999

Alternatives

One of the alternative proposals to land acquisition is leasing the land from landowners for a certain lease period. Proponents cite how land acquisition policies by Governments unwittingly encourage rampant land speculation making the projects expensive since huge portion of investment would be need to be allocated for land acquisition costs.[43] According to them, policies of land acquisition gave way to political cronyism where land is acquired cheaply by securing favors from local governments and sold to industries at steep markup prices. Leasing land, may also support sustainable project development since the lands need to be returned to the landowners at the end of the lease period in a condition similar to its original form with out considerable environmental degradation.[44] When the land is leased then anybody who has to otherwise give up land or livelihood will be compensated for its growing valuation over time. In this model, the landowner lends her land to the government for a steadily-increasing rent, or through an annuity-based system as currently practiced in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.[45]

Some industries already follow the model of leasing lands instead of acquiring it. Energy development projects such as oil & gas extraction usually lease lands. Renewable energy projects such as Wind Power farms[46][47][48] and Bio-fuel[49] projects often lease the land from land owners instead of trying to acquire the land which could make the projects prohibitively expensive.

Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013

The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (also Land Acquisition Act, 2013) is an Act of Indian Parliament that regulates land acquisition and provides lays down the procedure and rules for granting compensation, rehabilitation and resettlement to the affected persons in India. The Act has provisions to provide fair compensation to those whose land is taken away, brings transparency to the process of acquisition of land to set up factories or buildings, infrastructural projects and assures rehabilitation of those affected. The Act establishes regulations for land acquisition as a part of India’s massive industrialisation drive driven by public-private partnership. The Act replaced the Land Acquisition Act, 1894, a nearly 120-year-old law enacted during British rule.

The Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2011 was introduced in Lok Sabha on 7 September 2011.[1][2][3] The bill was then passed by it on 29 August 2013 and by Rajya Sabha on 4 September 2013. The bill then received the assent of the President of India, Pranab Mukherjee on 27 September 2013.[4] The Act came into force from 1 January 2014.[5][6][7][8]

An amendment bill was then introduced in Parliament to endorse the Ordinance. Lok Sabha passed the bill but the same is still lying for passage by the Rajya Sabha. On 30 May 2015, President of India promulgated the amendment ordinance for third time.[9]

Contents

Background

The Government of India believed there was a heightened public concern on land acquisition issues in India. Of particular concern was that despite many amendments, over the years, to India’s Land Acquisition Act of 1894, there was an absence of a cohesive national law that addressed fair compensation when private land is acquired for public use, and fair rehabilitation of land owners and those directly affected from loss of livelihoods. The Government of India believed that a combined law was necessary, one that legally requires rehabilitation and resettlement necessarily and simultaneously follow government acquisition of land for public purposes.[10]

Forty-Fourth Amendment Act of 1978 omitted Art 19(1) (f) with the net result being:-

  1. The right not to be deprived of one’s property save by authority of law has since been no longer a fundamental right. “No person shall be deprived of his property saved by authority of law” (Constitution 44th Amendment, w.e.f. 10.6.1979). The amendment ensured that the right to property‟ is no more a fundamental right but rather a constitutional/legal right/as a statutory right and in the event of breach, the remedy available to an aggrieved person is through the High Court under Article 226 of the Indian Constitution and not the Supreme Court under Article 32 of the Constitution. .
  2. Moreover, no one can challenge the reasonableness of the restriction imposed by any law the legislature made to deprive the person of his property.

State must pay compensation at the market value for such land, building or structure acquired (Inserted by Constitution, Seventeenth Amendment Act, 1964), the same can be found in the earlier rulings when property right was a fundamental right (such as 1954 AIR 170, 1954 SCR 558, which propounded that the word “Compensation” deployed in Article 31(2) implied full compensation, that is the market value of the property at the time of the acquisition. The Legislature must “ensure that what is determined as payable must be compensation, that is, a just equivalent of what the owner has been deprived of”). Elsewhere, Justice, Reddy, O Chinnappa ruled (State Of Maharashtra v. Chandrabhan Tale on 7 July, 1983) that the fundamental right to property has been abolished because of its incompatibility with the goals of “justice” social, economic and political and “equality of status and of opportunity” and with the establishment of “a socialist democratic republic, as contemplated by the Constitution. There is no reason why a new concept of property should be introduced in the place of the old so as to bring in its wake the vestiges of the doctrine of Laissez Faire and create, in the name of efficiency, a new oligarchy. Efficiency has many facets and one is yet to discover an infallible test of efficiency to suit the widely differing needs of a developing society such as ours” (1983 AIR 803, 1983 SCR (3) 327) (Dey Biswas 2014, 14-15 footnote).

The Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Bill, 2011 was introduced in Lok Sabha. Two Bills on similar lines were introduced in Lok Sabha in 2007. These Bills lapsed with the dissolution of the 14th Lok Sabha.[11]

The First Amendment to the above bill was introduced and passed in the lower house of the Indian legislature on 11 March 2015 among strong protest from allies as well as opposition. It is expected to face opposition in the Rajya Sabha as well after being dubbed as an “anti-farmer” bill.

Aims and objectives

The aims and objectives of the Act include:

  • To ensure, in consultation with institutions of local self-government and Gram Sabhas established under the Constitution of India, a humane, participative, informed and transparent process for land acquisition for industrialisation, development of essential infrastructural facilities and urbanisation with the least disturbance to the owners of the land and other affected families
  • Provide just and fair compensation to the affected families whose land has been acquired or proposed to be acquired or are affected by such acquisition
  • Make adequate provisions for such affected persons for their rehabilitation and resettlement
  • Ensure that the cumulative outcome of compulsory acquisition should be that affected persons become partners in development leading to an improvement in their post acquisition social and economic status and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.[12]

Purpose and scope

The Act aims to establish the law on land acquisition, as well as the rehabilitation and resettlement of those directly affected by the land acquisition in India. The scope of the Act includes all land acquisition whether it is done by the Central Government of India, or any State Government of India, except the state of Jammu & Kashmir.

The Act is applicable when:

  • Government acquires land for its own use, hold and control, including land for Public sector undertakings.
  • Government acquires land with the ultimate purpose to transfer it for the use of private companies for stated public purpose. The purpose of LARR 2011 includes public-private-partnership projects, but excludes land acquired for state or national highway projects.
  • Government acquires land for immediate and declared use by private companies for public purpose.

The provisions of the Act does not apply to acquisitions under 16 existing legislations including the Special Economic Zones Act, 2005, the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, the Railways Act, 1989, etc.[11]

Provisions

Definition of public purpose

Section 2(1) of the Act defines the following as public purpose for land acquisition within India:[13]

  • For strategic purposes relating to naval, military, air force, and armed forces of the Union, including central paramilitary forces or any work vital to national security or defence of India or State police, safety of the people; or
  • For infrastructure projects, which includes the following, namely:
    • All activities or items listed in the notification of the Government of India in the Department of Economic Affairs (Infrastructure Section) number 13/6/2009-INF, dated 27 March 2012, excluding private hospitals, private educational institutions and private hotels;
    • Projects involving agro-processing, supply of inputs to agriculture, warehousing, cold storage facilities, marketing infrastructure for agriculture and allied activities such as dairy, fisheries, and meat processing, set up or owned by the appropriate Government or by a farmers’ cooperative or by an institution set up under a statute;
    • Project for industrial corridors or mining activities, national investment and manufacturing zones, as designated in the National Manufacturing Policy;
    • Project for water harvesting and water conservation structures, sanitation;
    • Project for Government administered, Government aided educational and research schemes or institutions;
    • Project for sports, health care, tourism, transportation of space programme;
    • Any infrastructure facility as may be notified in this regard by the Central Government and after tabling of such notification in Parliament;
  • Project for project affected families;
  • Project for housing, or such income groups, as may be specified from time to time by the appropriate Government;
  • Project for planned development or the improvement of village sites or any site in the urban areas or provision of land for residential purposes for the weaker sections in rural and urban areas;
  • Project for residential purposes to the poor or landless or to persons residing in areas affected by natural calamities, or to persons displaced or affected by reason of the implementation of any scheme undertaken by the Government, any local authority or a corporation owned or controlled by the State.

When government declares public purpose and shall control the land directly, consent of the land owner shall not be required. However, when the government acquires the land for private companies, the consent of at least 80% of the project affected families shall be obtained through a prior informed process before government uses its power under the Act to acquire the remaining land for public good, and in case of a public-private project at least 70% of the affected families should consent to the acquisition process.[14]

The Act includes an urgency clause for expedited land acquisition. The urgency clause may only be invoked for national defense, security and in the event of rehabilitation of affected people from natural disasters or emergencies.

Definition of ‘land owner’

The Act defines the following as land owner:[13]

  1. person whose name is recorded as the owner of the land or building or part thereof, in the records of the authority concerned; or
  2. person who is granted forest rights under The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 or under any other law for the time being in force; or
  3. Person who is entitled to be granted Patta rights on the land under any law of the State including assigned lands; or
  4. any person who has been declared as such by an order of the court or Authority;[12]

Limits on acquisition

The Act forbids land acquisition when such acquisition would include multi-crop irrigated area. However such acquisition may be permitted on demonstrable last resort, which will be subjected to an aggregated upper limit for all the projects in a District or State as notified by the State Government. In addition to the above condition, wherever multi-crop irrigated land is acquired an equivalent area of cultivable wasteland shall be developed by the state for agricultural purposes. In other type of agricultural land, the total acquisition shall not exceed the limit for all the projects in a District or State as notified by the Appropriate Authority. These limits shall not apply to linear projects which includes projects for railways, highways, major district roads, power lines, and irrigation canals.[15]

Compensation

Section 27 of the Act defines the method by which market value of the land shall be computed under the proposed law. Schedule I outlines the proposed minimum compensation based on a multiple of market value. Schedule II through VI outline the resettlement and rehabilitation entitlements to land owners and livelihood losers, which shall be in addition to the minimum compensation per Schedule I.

Market value

The market value of the proposed land to be acquired, shall be set as the higher of:[13]

  • the minimum land value, if any, specified in the Indian Stamp Act, 1899[16] for the registration of sale deeds in the area, where the land is situated; or
  • the average of the sale price for similar type of land being acquired, ascertained from the highest fifty per cent of the sale deeds registered during the preceding three years in the nearest village or nearest vicinity of the land being acquired.; or
  • the consented amount in case the land is acquired for private companies or public-private partnership projects.

The market value would be multiplied by a factor of, at least one to two times the market value for land acquired in rural areas and at least one times the market value for land acquired in urban areas. The Act stipulates that the minimum compensation to be a multiple of the total of above ascertained market value, value to assets attached to the property, plus a solatium equal to 100 percent of the market value of the property including value of assets.

In addition to above compensation, the Act proposes a wide range of rehabilitation and resettlement entitlements to land owners and livelihood losers from the land acquirer.

Rehabilitation and resettlement

For land owners, the Act provides:[10]

  • an additional subsistence allowance of Rs.36,000 (US$ 800) for the first year – may be
  • an additional entitlement of a job to the family member, or a payment of Rs.5,00,000 (US$ 11,000) up front, or a monthly annuity totaling Rs.24,000 (US$ 550) per year for 20 years with adjustment for inflation – the option from these three choices shall be the legal right of the affected land owner family, not the land acquirer
  • an additional upfront compensation of Rs.50,000 (US$ 1,100) for transportation
  • an additional upfront resettlement allowance of Rs.50,000(US$ 1,100)
  • if the land owner loses a home in a rural area, then an additional entitlement of a house with no less than 50 square meters in plinth area
  • if the land is acquired for urbanization, 20% of the developed land will be reserved and offered to land owning families, in proportion to their land acquired and at a price equal to cost of acquisition plus cost of subsequent development
  • if acquired land is resold without development, 20% of the appreciated land value shall be mandatorily shared with the original owner whose land was acquired

In addition to the above compensation and entitlements under the proposed LARR 2011, scheduled caste and schedule tribe (SC/ST) families will be entitled to several other additional benefits per Schedule II of the proposed bill. India has over 250 million people protected and classified as SC/ST, about 22% of its total population. The proposed additional benefits to these families include:[13]

  • an additional land grant of 2.5 acres per affected family
  • an additional assistance of Rs.50,000 (US$ 1,100)
  • free land for community and social gatherings, and special Schedule V and VI benefits

Schedule III of LARR 2011 proposes additional amenities over and beyond those outlined above. Schedule III proposes that the land acquirer shall provide 25 additional services to families affected by the land acquisition.[13] Some examples of the 25 additional services include schools, health centres, roads, safe drinking water, child support services, places of worship, burial and cremation grounds, post offices, fair price shops, and storage facilities.

LARR Bill 2011 proposes that Schedule II through VI shall apply even when private companies willingly buy land from willing sellers, without any involvement of the government.

The Bill as drafted mandates compensation and entitlements without limit to number of claimants. Thus, for clarity and as an example, if 1000 acres of rural land is to be acquired for a project, with market price of Rs.2,25,000 per acre (US$ 5000 per acre), 100 families claim to be land owners, and 5 families per acre claim their rights as livelihood losers under the proposed LARR 2011 Bill, the total cost to acquire the 1000 acre would be

  • Land compensation = Rs.90,00,00,000 (US$ 20,000,000)
  • Land owner entitlements = Rs.6,30,00,000 (US$ 1,400,000) + 100 replacement homes
  • Livelihood loser entitlements = Rs.365,00,00,000 (US$ 70,000,000) + 5000 replacement homes

The average effective cost of land, in the above example will be at least Rs.41,00,000 (US$ 91,400) per acre plus replacement homes and additional services per Schedule III to VI of the proposed bill. Even if the pre-acquisition average market price for land were just Rs.22,500 per acre (US$ 500 per acre) in the above example, the proposed R&R, other entitlements and Schedule III to VI would raise the effective cost of land to at least Rs.33,03,000 (US$ 73,400) per acre.

The LARR Bill of 2011 proposes the above benchmarks as minimum. The state governments of India, or private companies, may choose to set and implement a policy that pays more than the minimum proposed by LARR 2011.

For context purposes, the proposed land prices because of compensation and R&R LARR 2011 may be compared with land prices elsewhere in the world:

  • According to The Financial Times, in 2008, the farmland prices in France were Euro 6,000 per hectare ($2,430 per acre; Rs.1,09,350 per acre).[17]
  • According to the United States Department of Agriculture, as of January 2010, the average farmland value in the United States was $2,140 per acre (Rs.96,300 per acre). The farmland prices in the United States varied between different parts of the country, ranging between $480 per acre to $4,690 per acre.[18]

A 2010 report by the Government of India, on labour whose livelihood depends on agricultural land, claims[19] that, per 2009 data collected across all states in India, the all-India annual average daily wage rates in agricultural occupations ranged between Rs.53 to 117 per day for men working in farms (US$ 354 to 780 per year), and between Rs.41 to 72 per day for women working in farms (US$ 274 to 480 per year). This wage rate in rural India study included the following agricultural operations common in India: ploughing, sowing, weeding, transplanting, harvesting, winnowing, threshing, picking, herdsmen, tractor driver, unskilled help, mason, etc.

Benefits and effects

The 2013 Act is expected to affect rural families in India whose primary livelihood is derived from farms. The Act will also affect urban households in India whose land or property is acquired.

Per an April 2010 report,[20] over 50% of Indian population (about 60 crore people) derived its livelihood from farm lands. With an average rural household size of 5.5,[21] LARR Bill 2011 R&R entitlement benefits may apply to about 10.9 crore rural households in India.

According to Government of India, the contribution of agriculture to Indian economy’s gross domestic product has been steadily dropping with every decade since its independence. As of 2009, about 15.7% of India’s GDP is derived from agriculture. Act will mandate higher payments for land as well as guaranteed entitlements from India’s non-agriculture-derived GDP to the people supported by agriculture-derived GDP. It is expected that the Act will directly affect 13.2 crore hectares (32.6 crore acres) of rural land in India, over 10 crore land owners, with an average land holding of about 3 acres per land owner.[20] Families whose livelihood depends on farming land, the number of livelihood-dependent families per acre varies widely from season to season, demands of the land, and the nature of crop.

Act provides to compensate rural households – both land owners and livelihood losers. The Act goes beyond compensation, it mandates guaranteed series of entitlements to rural households affected. According to a July 2011 report from the Government of India, the average rural household per capita expenditure/income in 2010, was Rs.928 per month (US$ 252 per year).[22]

For a typical rural household that owns the average of 3 acres of land, the Act will replace the loss of annual average per capita income of Rs.11,136 for the rural household, with:[10]

  • four times the market value of the land, and
  • an upfront payment of Rs.1,36,000 (US$ 3,000) for subsistence, transportation and resettlement allowances, and
  • an additional entitlement of a job to the family member, or a payment of Rs.5,00,000 (US$ 11,000) up front, or a monthly annuity totaling Rs.24,000 (US$ 550) per year for 20 years with adjustment for inflation – the option from these three choices shall be the legal right of the affected land owner family, not the land acquirer, and
  • a house with no less than 50 square meters in plinth area, and
  • additional benefits may apply if the land is resold without development, used for urbanization, or if the land owner belongs to SC/ST or other protected groups per rules of the Government of India

If the affected families on the above rural land demand 100% upfront compensation from the land acquirer, and the market value of land is Rs.1,00,000 per acre, the Act mandates the land acquirer to offset the loss of an average per capita 2010 income of Rs.11,136 per year created by this 3 acre of rural land, with the following:[10]

  • Rs.18,36,000 (US$ 41,727) to the rural land owner; which is the total of R&R allowances of Rs.6,36,000 plus Rs.12,00,000 – which is four times the market value of the land, plus
  • a house with no less than 50 square metres in plinth area and benefits from Schedule III-VI as applicable to the rural land owner, plus
  • additional payments of Rs.6,36,000 each to any additional families claiming to have lost its livelihood because of the acquisition, even if they do not own the land

The effects of LARR Bill 2011, in certain cases, will apply retroactively to pending and incomplete projects. land acquisition for all linear projects such as highways, irrigation canals, railways, ports and others.[13]

Criticisms

The proposed Bill, LARR 2011, is being criticized on a number of fronts:

  • Some criticize the Act citing that it is heavily loaded in favour of land owners and ignores the needs of poor Indians who need affordable housing, impoverished families who need affordable hospitals, schools, employment opportunities and infrastructure and industries.[23][24]
  • Some economists suggest that it attaches an arbitrary mark-up to the historical market price to determine compensation amounts, along with its numerous entitlements to potentially unlimited number of claimants. This according to them shall guarantee neither social justice nor the efficient use of resources.[25]
  • LARR 2011 as proposed mandates that compensation and rehabilitation payments to land owners and livelihood losers be upfront. This misaligns the interests of land acquirer and those affected. Once the payment is made, one or more of the affected families may seek to delay the progress of the project to extract additional compensation, thereby adversely affecting those who chose long term employment in the affected families. The Bill, these economists suggest, should link compensation and entitlements to the progress and success of the project, such as through partial compensation in form of land bonds. These success-linked infrastructure bonds may also help poor states reduce the upfront cost of land acquisition for essential public projects such as hospitals, schools, universities, affordable housing, clean drinking water treatment plants, electricity power generation plants, sewage treatment plants, flood control reservoirs, and highways necessary to bring relief to affected public during fires, epidemics, earthquakes, floods and other natural disasters. The state of Kerala has decided to pursue the use of infrastructure bonds as a form of payment to land owners.[26]
  • LARR 2011 places no limit on total compensation or number of claimants; nor does it place any statute of limitations on claims or claimants.[27] The beneficiaries of the Bill, with guaranteed jobs for 26 years, will have no incentive to be productive. The Bill should place a limit on total value of entitlement benefits that can be annually claimed per acre, this entitlement pool should then be divided between the affected families, and the government should run this program if it is considered to be fair.
  • LARR 2011 as proposed severely curtails free market transactions between willing sellers and willing buyers. For example, DLF Limited – India’s largest real estate developer – claims that the current bill may limit private companies such as DLF from developing affordable housing for millions of Indians. DLF suggests that direct land transactions with owners on a willing voluntary basis, at market-determined rate, should be kept out of the purview of the bill.[28] There should be no conditions imposed on free market transactions between willing sellers and willing buyers.
  • Amartya Sen, the India-born Nobel Laureate in economics, claims prohibiting the use of fertile agricultural land for industries is ultimately self-defeating.[29] Sen claims industry is based near cities, rivers, coast lines, expressways and other places for logistical necessities, quality of life for workers, cost of operations, and various reasons. Sen, further suggests that even though the land may be very fertile, industrial production generates many times more than the value of the product produced by agriculture. History of industrialisation and global distribution of industry hubs, Sen claims, show that the locations of great industry, be it Manchester, London, Munich, Paris, Pittsburgh, Shanghai or Lancashire, these were all on heavily fertile land. Industry always competes with agriculture, Sen claims, because the shared land was convenient for industry for trade and transportation. Amartya Sen further argues that in countries like Australia, the US or Canada, where agriculture has prospered, only a very tiny population is involved in agriculture. Agriculture prospers by increasing productivity and efficiency. Most people move out to industry. Industry has to be convenient, has to be absorbing. When people move out of agriculture, total production does not go down; rather, per capita income increases. For the prosperity of industry, agriculture and the economy, India needs industrialisation. Those in India, who in effect prevent industrialisation, either by politically making it impossible for entrepreneurs to feel comfortable in starting a business, or by making it difficult to buy land for industry, do not serve the interest of the poor well, claims Sen. The proposed LARR 2011 bill prohibits the acquisition of fertile agriculture land beyond 5% per district.
  • An article in The Wall Street Journal claims that the proposed LARR 2011 rules will apply even when any private company acquires 100 acres of land or more.[30] For context, POSCO India seeks about 4000 acres for its US$12 billion proposed steel manufacturing plant in the Indian state of Orissa. In most cases, even small companies planning US$10-US$300 million investment, seeking 100 or more acres will be affected by the compensation plus rehabilitation effort and expenses of LARR 2011. The WSJ article further claims that the proposed LARR 2011 bill doesn’t actually define the word “acquisition,” and leaves open a loophole that could allow government agencies to continue banking land indefinitely.
  • The Observer Research Foundation’s Sahoo argues that the bill fails to adequately define “public purpose”.[31] The current definition, he claims, can be interpreted vaguely. In leaving public purpose too vague and porous, it would ensure that land acquisition will remain hostage to politics and all kinds of disputes. More clarity is needed, perhaps with the option that each state have the right to hold a referendum, whereby the voters in the state can vote to approve or disapprove proposed public purpose land acquisitions through the referendum, as is done through local elections in the United States for certain public acquisition of private or agricultural land.
  • The Confederation of Real Estate Developers’ Association of India claims that the proposed LARR 2011 bill is kind of one-sided, its ill-thought-out entitlements may sound very altruistic and pro-poor, but these are unsustainable and will kill the goose that lays the golden egg.[32] This group further claims that the bill, if passed, will increase the cost of acquisition of land to unrealistic level. It will be almost impossible to acquire 50-acre or 100-acre land at one place for planned development. They suggest that if India does not facilitate urbanization in an organized manner, all the incremental population will be housed in disorganized housing developments such as slums with dire consequences for Indian economy. In the long run, even farmers will suffer as fringe development of urban centres will largely be in the form of unauthorized developments and they will not realize the true economic potential of their lands.
  • The bill inflates the cost of land to help a small minority of Indians at the cost of the vast majority of Indian citizens, as less than 10% of Indian population owns rural or urban land.,[20][33] The LARR Bill 2011 favours a privileged minority of land owners as the Bill mandates above market prices for their land plus an expensive rehabilitation package. The Bill does not mandate a process by which the time involved in land acquisition is reduced from current levels of years. Nor does the Bill consider the effect of excessive costs upfront, and expensive rehabilitation mandate over time, on the financial feasibility of large-scale, socially necessary infrastructure projects needed by 90%+ of Indians who are not landowners. In an editorial, Vidya Bala writes that the most important weakness in the Bill is bringing non-government transactions too under its purview. Private players buying 50+ acres of urban land tracts or 100+ acres of rural areas would be required to comply with the R&R package stated in the Bill.[34]
  • LARR 2011 Bill’s sections 97, 98 and 99 are incongruous with other laws of India in details and intent. Section 98, for example, says that the provisions of the Bill shall not apply to the enactments relating to land acquisition specified in the Fourth Schedule of the Bill. According to Indian Legal Code, the Fourth Schedule referred to by LARR 2011 Bill, consists of 16 bills, including the ancient monuments and archaeological sites and remains Act, 1958, the atomic energy Act, 1962, the special economic zones Act, 2005, the cantonments Act, 2006, the railways Act, 1989 amongst others. Laws can not be in conflict with each other. LARR Bill carve outs through Sections 97, 98 and 99 add confusion, offering a means for numerous citizen petitions, lawsuits and judicial activism. The LARR 2011 Bill thus fails to deliver on the goals motivating it.[35]

Senior class portraits: The first Impression

Make this time the most memorable moments of your life. The school is about to end, you’ll step into the real world soon and have many responsibilities, so spend this time being carefree and happy. The internet is full of ideas for senior class portraits so start the creative juices flowing and go crazy.

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Photo Shoot ideas

  • Your photographer will have plenty of ideas for the session but you can always add your own style. Though balloons might seem childish but when incorporated in the right way, they can gives a great look to your portraits. Sparkles and confetti are other nice addition to the photos, adding a little bit of magic. Or go for a more sparkling look with sparklers; write your name with one for a more glittery setting.
  • Abandoned or remote locations look wonderful, with just the right lightening and camera angle. You can go for this option since the photographer can control the level of exposure. As for you, act for the part and get weird.
  • Or just do the opposite and get creative on the busy city streets. A shot of you standing by the passing traffic, or waiting at the bus stop. The photographer should use the sunlight to create a unique image. There are so many ways you can make this session exciting and beautiful too.
  • A natural background would look lovely – stand in a field of flowers, lie down in a bright pillow of green grass, or get the looming mountains in the distance. All of these would give a more natural look to the photos.
  • Dress up in glittery gowns and sparkling heels and get a fairy tale photo shoot. Get cute with farm animals or just include your pets. They make pretty good photo partners.
  • Use some props to hold or sit on during the session, such as a book, chair or an umbrella maybe.
  • These photos are a great way to showcase your special talents. If you are a musician, incorporate your instrument in the photos. Get your sports spirit on and get creative on the field of your favorite sport.

During the shoot

  • Relax and be comfortable with he settings.
  • If you are in a studio, ask the photographer to put on some music to ease the tension.
  • Follow the photographer’s direction. They will know the best poses to get a good photo so do what they say, even if it might seem silly.
  • Let that smile come naturally or you’ll get a mechanical smile that looks horrible. If you are relaxed, the smile will look great. A little tip to help you; leave a little space between the teeth for a genuine looking smile.
  • Allow yourself little breaks during the photos and take a sip of water to cool down.

This time will not return so make sure that you enjoy every last bit. But most importantly, choose the photographer that will make this time more special and creative. Visit www.melodyrobbinsphotography.com and make these senior year portraits memories to relish.

Characteristic Features of a Smart City

Equipped with great modern facilities and a better system of connectivity and accountability Smart Cities are the future of cities. Becoming a Smart City depends on a number of factors, ranging from the financial condition of the city to the managerial capacity of its people. There are, however, certain basic traits that are necessary to make any city a Smart City. It is not merely limited to the material enhancement and growth of the city and its surroundings but the growth of human satisfaction and happiness. The increased emphasis on the citizen participation in a number of definitions of Smart Cities suggest that the scope of growth and development in a Smart City is not merely limited to the material conditions and growth but that it encompasses the improvement in an overall standard of living of its people. With the efficient use of technology in these cities the world will become a smaller and connected and a well acquainted place, which would eventually lead to new scope of livelihood and an increased connectivity between masses.

Characteristic Features of a Smart City

Characteristic Features of a Smart City

Some of the Features that define a Smart City are:

 

  1. Use Information Technologies:

Smart City is a region that makes extensive use of Information technologies which are also called as Information and communications technology (ICT). These technologies make efficient use of physical infrastructure. The connectivity between the people and the administration of the city becomes much more efficient. The data analysis leads to a healthy economic, social, cultural development of the city and its inhabitants. ICT suggests the use of integrated technology platforms, easily accessible across various devices. This easy access to information provides the key to transparent and accountable governance, speed and participation of citizens in matters of their concern and proper access to public services.

 

  1. Safety and Security:

Intensive surveillance of public areas and twenty-four seven connectivity will lead to a greater sense of security amongst the people of such Smart Cities. With growing concern over women and children security, the efficient use of cameras in Smart Cities will leave end the scope of crimes against the innocent. The greater accountability of the governing bodies would also be an incentive to control and check the unlawful practices.

 

  1. Citizen Participation:

Another revolutionary feature of Smart Cities would be the increased Citizen Participation in the functioning of the government of that area.  In a country where transparency in government activities is a distant dream and where corruption erodes the efficiency of the administration, this aspect of Smart Cities would open paths towards the better India where government could be held responsible for the actions that it takes.

 

  1. Financial sustainability:

The financial independence would be an important pillar for survival of Smart Cities. And to meet that end all the available resources of revenue would have to be tapped and put to use. And with extensive database of information about the citizens and inhabitants of the City this financial sustainability would not be hard to achieve and would come as a breath of fresh air for the governing and the governed.

 

  1. Smart Solutions:

All the basic human problems would find a smart solution in these Smart Cities, whether it be the waste management issue or the concern over the transportation facilities, Smart Cities would provide a solution to all these problems in the most efficient way possible.

 

  1. Simple Living:

With the improved standard of living, these Cities would home the culture of Simple Living. With every information available at the touch of a button and the accessibility of that information from a variety of devices would end the trouble of living with burdens and the citizens of Smart Cities would be able to lead a simple and fulfilling life. The awareness and information about the use of resources and their protection would enhance the levels of sensitivity amongst the people and will make them more concerned about the future generation and internal satisfaction than the material gains.

 

  1. Walk-to-work:

Ideally, Smart Cities would aim at developing a place where people can walk to their workplaces and if that won’t be possible then the use of public transport would be promoted which would in turn increase the efficiency of the citizens by reducing the time lost in transportation. Use of electric cars, and bicycle paths would also be a key feature of the Smart Cities.

 

  1. 8. Green City:

With prime concern being given to the sustainable use of resources the Smart City would help reduce the carbon footprint of the human race. The incorporation of Parks and Green areas would be a blessing for the inhabitants of the city who would be the recipient of the fresh air and clean environment which has already become a rare luxury and the conditions of metropolitans are bound to decay in times to come. Owning a Flat in Smart City would be a means to healthy survival.

 

  1. Intelligent environments (IE):

The defining feature of a Smart City is no doubt the intelligent environment, which creates interactive spaces and enhances inhabitants’ experiences.

The connectivity, the transparency and the sense of security are all key features of a Smart City that make it the Future of Cities.

Why Smart Cities would be the future of Cities

Subconsciously we attribute to future the hope of being better, rarely do we wonder about the responsibility that it carries on with itself and almost never do we realize that betterment comes with human efforts, and it is on these human efforts we ought to concentrate. One problem however hinders human efforts, this is the problem of limits, be it on the resources we can use or environment we can exploit, and these limits push us to innovate de tours for our ways to success and growth. One such de tour is the Smart City Project which is in full swing these days, owing to the desires of our PM to make country self-dependent and developed.

But what actually makes a city smart is defined not just but the latest technology that it uses but the psychological, sociological and environmental development it initiates or sustains. And Smart City does try to fulfil these expectations.

 

Why Smart Cities would be the future of Cities

Why Smart Cities would be the future of Cities

Environment Friendly Nature:

This is a unique feature, which enables these cities to be a part of Environmental sustainability. The waste management methods to be incorporated in these Smart Cities might actually help save our rivers and water bodies, and not just that, the energy efficient fuel and the proximity of all the places of human requirements would help reduce the use of personal vehicles and thus reduce the carbon footprint of our generation. This would mean that we would not leave a world greyed by our greed for our children to come, this definitely means a brighter future.

 

Future of safety and security:

With the ever increasing internet user range in India the connectivity of people would reach entirely new levels in few years’ time, it is this connectivity that Smart Cities would put to use to enhance the security of theirs campuses. Databases would be filled with information about the citizens and information would be provided to these citizens on their applications, so the transparency would increase and accountability would be great. This safety and security based on a well-connected network of devices and databases surely translates into a better future.

 

Health Benefits:          

The instances of people living in urban cities, complaining about their health problems is a very common sight. The blame for any such problem is instantly given to the lack of fresh air and proper time to give attention to the needs of the physical well-being of the body, rarely do people try to solve this problem and continue ignoring the need for a better lifestyle. Smart Cities would be a blessing for those craving for fresh air and spaces to workout, because all these cities are planned in such a way so as to provide most of the green scenery and fresh air to its inhabitants. And not just that the gymnasiums and Swimming Pools which are an essential part of these smart cities would not only encourage you to care about your health but would also rid you of the excess weight of healthcare problems. A healthy future is no doubt a happy one.

Proximity of places of importance:

The direction in which our cities were going made it a distant dream to be able to reach any place on time without proper scheduling and planning. Long hours are always kept aside on our time tables to be spent in traffic of the metropolitan cities, in the rush of the hour, we hardly realize how much time we lose in those hours of delay and desperation. This does two things, first it increases the inefficiency of people and it makes them frustrated and second it diminishes the value of human time. This lost time is being cherished in the ideas of Smart Cities where Office, Home, Play-ground, School, Hospital would all be in close range of each other and a walk would be enough to lead you from one place to another. A happy future is sure awaiting these dwellers of Smart Cities.

Smart Cities to Redefine Life in Delhi

With the commencement of construction of 3 new cities in Delhi on the lines of the energy efficient Smart Cities, life in the area would never be the same again. The Smart City Development project is a part of a world-wide drive of making urban centers more efficient and integrated. It has been assumed that the percentage of population residing in urban areas will rise to 70% by 2050, and the need to provide this population with proper living facilities and standard of living would be a great trouble for the governing bodies. It is in consideration of this problem that the project of building smart cities has got a new boom. To bring this idea of Smart City to reality a Special Purpose Vehicle will be created for each city to implement Smart City action plan. The SPV will be signed with the urban local body, state government and the Centre for implementation of the project.

Smart Cities to Redefine Life in Delhi

Smart Cities to Redefine Life in Delhi

Three projects of construction of Smart cities is already in progress in Delhi region, these projects are:

Out of these 3 the ‘Smart Residency’ being built in the Dwarka extension would be the 1st Smart City of this region. And owning a Flat in Smart City like this won’t be a distant dream for the people, because the price of Apartments in Smart City of Dwarka extension would start from Rs. 30 Lacs. The additional benefits of owning a Flat in this Smart City would be the great location with AH1 in close range.

 

Benefits of owning a Flat in 1st Smart City of Delhi:

  1. Freehold Property:

Outright ownership of the property and land on which it stands to the owner. A freehold estate in land (as opposed to a leasehold) is where the owner of the land has no time limit to his period of ownership. This means there would be no trouble in possession and ownership.

 

  1. Smart Swimming Pool with Solar Heating Panels:

Nothing translates into amusement and health at the same time, better than a dip in the Swimming Pool. And with the disturbed lifestyles of people in nine to five jobs and decreasing attention on health and hygiene, Swimming Pools play a very important role to keep us healthy and fit and free us of the stresses of a hectic busy life.

 

  1. Smart Security with CCTV and Video Door Phones:

The pathetic condition of the law and order around the city is not a new revelation, Smart Cites however provide a Smart alternative towards keeping the city Safe and Secure, that is by using latest technology and tools. With CCTV cameras monitoring every corner of the campus, the law and order could be very easily maintained. Video door phones also are a huge leap forward in avoiding unnecessary visitors and stalkers.

 

  1. Smart Connectivity with 24X7 wi-fi and power backup:

In these times of Information and Internet, life without wi-fi seems a little incomplete and Smart Cities are a solution to that incompleteness, because this 1st Smart City of Delhi would have an efficient 24X7 connectivity to wi-fi, this will also help people in keeping track of things. And a full time power backup would mean no more trouble of hours lost along with the power-cut.

 

  1. Smart Elevators provisioned in each tower:

By owning a Flat in 1st Smart City, one will be able to see life and the city from new heights, both metaphorically and literally. The magnificent height of the Towers would be a blessing, and the Smart Elevators would make life much easier and time efficient. It will also be the hope for the elderly.

 

  1. Smart Lifestyle including gymnasium and yoga areas:

Not only would this 1st Smart City be Smart in material terms but it will also make Lifestyles of its inhabitants smart. With the reduction in the amount of Carbon footprint, this Smart City would strive to make its people healthy and stress free. The gymnasium and yoga areas are manifestation of this attempt of Smart City which aims at human resource development and making citizens more efficient and productive.

To know more about the 1st Smart City visit : http://www.1stsmartcity.com/

Why Investing in Smart Cities right now would be a wise move

What makes some people extraordinarily successful is not their being in the right place at the right time, but their foresight. Success is more about investing at the right place at the right time. In present times with the incredible rate of growth of technology and science, one needs to be well acquainted with the new developments in every field of life, especially those which affect us directly, and one such field is that of housing and accommodation. India is no more a primarily agricultural economy and today the influx of the population in urban centres is phenomenal. It is this shift of the population that must concern the people who want to get best out of their resources. The limited natural resources might turn this world into a competitive fighting pit, but innovations always come to the rescue. Smart City Development

Why Investing in Smart Cities right now would be a wise move

Why Investing in Smart Cities right now would be a wise move

is also one of these innovative human projects to put the straying economy into line with the development plans of the nation. Smart city construction aims at providing better and most modern and developed facilities to its inhabitants in order to maximize the constructive human output. And it is investment in these Smart Cities that would push the investors forward in the race of life. With the soaring prices of properties in present time, owning a Flat in Smart city would be a blessing for those who want the best from the limited resources.

The vision of ‘Digital India’ has a plan to build 100 smart cities across the country, these cities will be well acquainted with modern facilities which will help the inhabitants benefit from technology. Not only would these cities be haven for the citizens but along with better living conditions for the owners of Flats in Smart Cities, these cities will create employment opportunities and an improved condition of human life in not just the material sense but in the field of health as well.

With the vision of Digital India, India would be thrust forward as a leader in digitally delivering services in the field of health-care, education, better living facilities, fitness, clean environment and better security. An investment of $1.2 billion in Smart cities in India has been announced, this will be a boom for the economy with the employment generation and the human resource development.

For those who can now see the future returns in Investment in Smart Cities, this time is the greatest opportunity to maximize their profit. One such smart city is being built at Dwarka extension, touching AH1, this Smart City would open a whole new world for people who would own a Flat in this Smart City and those who would be involved in its functioning and upkeep. Incorporating latest and most advanced features of the Smart City Technology this 1st Smart City of the area would act as a model for numerous Smart Cities yet to come in existence in India.

The most striking feature of this 1st Smart city being built at Dwarka extension, is its strategic location, whether it be its proximity to AH1 or its 10mins distance to forthcoming AIIMS-2, this 1st Smart City is a blessing for those who want to get most out of their lives.

To register and know more visit: http://www.1stsmartcity.com/

Why Are Smart Cities Important For India

With the ever increasing amount of population in a country like India, lack of accommodation is becoming a growing concern. While the growth and settlement around source of livelihood is a basic human tendency, the shortage of resources leads to a cut throat competition between people who want to survive and serve in these times. Between 2000 and 2005, employment in urban India grew at a faster rate per year (3.22%) than in rural India (1.97%),  this clearly shows a shift in trend of preference of occupation and livelihood.

Strain on Resources:

The natural resources of the country being limited, the constant urban shift of population raises the need of living space. And this need is coupled with the need of sustainable development which aims at efficient use of resources in a way that would not starve our future generation of the basic necessities of survival. Smart cities are a way of using minimum resources and producing maximum output from it.

 

What is a Smart City :

A developed urban area that creates high quality of life, by focusing on areas of economic restructuring, environmental sustenance, citizen participation and use of high quality digital technologies or information and communication technologies (ICT) can be termed as a smart city.

A smart city is often referred to as a future city, in which the functioning and maintenance of  administration,  infrastructure and communication is based on modern technology.

Uninterrupted water and electricity supply, proper sanitation facilities, efficient public transport, waste management, , IT connectivity would be some of the basic features of the smart cities that are being planned as a part of vigorous development and sustenance programs around the globe.

 

Improved Living Standards:

Owning a Flat in Smart Cities, equipped with the facilities to make living simple and survival of masses as hassle free as possible would lead to an improved standard of living for the majority of people owning Flats in Smart Cities. This would be a huge step forward in the overall development of India as a society where till present times only a limited amount of population had the access to such modern services and facilities, but with the emergence of Smart Cities these facilities would be made available to a greater number of people.

 

Smart City and Sustainability:

There has been a growing need to plan, design and manage cities that can cope with things like pressure on resources and increased waste, while meeting carbon and climate challenge and provide the highest standard of living for the inhabitants, Smart Cities are answer to these needs and aspirations. The cornerstone of the success of Smart Cities is the production of efficient human resource at the least possible cost, in terms of strain on economy and environment. The enhanced citizen participation in the functioning of these Smart Cities is a step towards increasing awareness among these citizens about the waste production and management and this would lead to a sensitive and more sensible population that would want to use resources in limits.

 

Smart City as a Solution to Urban Problems:

Whether it be the issue of security, transportation, electricity, water supply, waste management, health concerns or issue of increasing pollution, Smart Cities

Why Are Smart Cities Important For India

Why Are Smart Cities Important For India

are a solution to all these problems of human survival. With an estimation that 600 million Indians will be living in cities by 2030, these problems can be the cause of colossal human troubles if not properly countered. The sorry condition of roads and transportation even in metropolitan cities, the issues of long hours of electricity cuts, the increasing amount of harmful pollutant in our atmosphere, the issues of security have already become a huge concern in present times and as the time passes the pressure on limited natural and man-made resources would keep on increasing, to cope up with that pressure Smart Cities are being set up in every state of the country and these Smart Cities are the only hope for better living.

All you need to know about DDA L Zone

As an investor or end user planning to look for property in DDA’s proposed L Zone, there are some key things that one needs to keep in mind.

What is L zone?

As a step towards facilitating the growing need of housing in Delhi, the Delhi Development Authority (DDA) is working on the Master Plan of L Zone. Located in South-West Delhi and spread across 22,840 hectare of land, the L Zone is expected to give an impetus to the slow and stagnant real estate market of the national capital. It is close to IGI Airport and is strategically positioned between Dwarka and Gurgaon.

Under the development plan, the authority has divided Delhi into 15 zones wherein ‘L’ Zone is the largest and boasts Najafgarh as the only census town in the zone. “At present the zones are open for buying land, wherein the housing societies and private developers are coming forth with their investment plans. Where majority have already bought land, many are still looking to obtaining the necessary approvals from the authority,” says Partho Kunar, director, Suhaskrit, a Delhi-based consultant firm.

Once the approvals are received, the land owners of L Zone will submit the land to DDA out of which the authority will take 40 per cent of the total land area for development of roads, drainage, sewerage and other civic amenities. Once developed, the developers/housing societies will be allowed to start their construction plans.

Delhi Smart Cities

Delhi Smart Cities

Guidelines for buyers

    • Under the plan, there are two categories of buyers – land buyers and home buyers. The land owners must read the land pooling policy in detail and buy land that falls under the residential zone
    • The home buyers, including individual investors who are taking interest in the real estate market here should make sure that the developer has the necessary approvals. “When it comes to home buyers, it’s an early investment one is making and should know that land pooling policy has been approved by the Gazette Notification no. 2076 dated 6th Sep 2013, but process of surrender and approval of individual project is yet to happen,” adds Kunar.

Invest with caution

As the L Zone is in the early stages of planning, you might be able to get the benefit of a first-comer, but there are a few things that one needs to take into account.

“As per the Master Plan 2021, any individual investor can buy land but one must ensure to do a recce of the area prior to investment. The buyer must read and understand the land pooling policy as well,” adds Kunar.

A home buyer must know that the land pooling policy has just been notified and is not yet operational. Therefore, it may take some time for the developers or group housing societies to receive land from DDA for further development.

An individual must authenticate the market reputation of the developer and should also verify the credential of the organisation owners along with their past project deliveries.

It seems to be the right time to invest in L Zone under the DDA Master plan 2021 but the buyer should keep in mind that it may take some time for the actual implementation of the plans on ground by the authority. So, if you are investing right now then there should be a willingness to wait for some years for the investment to grow.

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